My main areas of research interest are in the assessment of animal pain, and the animal welfare implications of prenatal stress in farmed animals. My current research focuses on behavioural development and the relevance of very early life (prenatal) experiences for later welfare in pigs, cattle and sheep. A recent Defra funded study (AW0509) also conducted a risk assessment for prenatal hazards in these species, and in poultry and farmed fish. Before that I worked on a BBSRC funded study investigating the effect of prenatal stress and tail-docking on pig welfare. I have also worked previously on on-farm welfare assessment as part of a Defra-funded study (AW1020) comparing welfare measures on organic and non-organic dairy farms.